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Alexander Milton Hamilton's Childhood in the Caribbean VideoInside Portland's Turf War Between Proud Boys and Local Antifascists
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Originale Alexander Milton Keramik-Armbanduhr - Limited Edition EUR , Alexander Milton Herrenuhr mit Box EUR , Several congressmen, including Hamilton, Robert Morris and Gouverneur Morris no relation , attempted to use this Newburgh Conspiracy as leverage to secure support from the states and in Congress for funding of the national government.
They encouraged MacDougall to continue his aggressive approach, threatening unknown consequences if their demands were not met, and defeated proposals that would have resolved the crisis without establishing general federal taxation: that the states assume the debt to the army, or that an impost be established dedicated to the sole purpose of paying that debt.
Hamilton suggested using the Army's claims to prevail upon the states for the proposed national funding system. Hamilton wrote Washington to suggest that Hamilton covertly "take direction" of the officers' efforts to secure redress, to secure continental funding but keep the army within the limits of moderation.
On March 15, Washington defused the Newburgh situation by addressing the officers personally. In the same month, Congress passed a new measure for a year impost—which Hamilton voted against  —that again required the consent of all the states; it also approved a commutation of the officers' pensions to five years of full pay.
Rhode Island again opposed these provisions, and Hamilton's robust assertions of national prerogatives in his previous letter were widely held to be excessive.
In June , a different group of disgruntled soldiers from Lancaster, Pennsylvania , sent Congress a petition demanding their back pay.
When they began to march toward Philadelphia, Congress charged Hamilton and two others with intercepting the mob.
Hamilton instructed Assistant Secretary of War William Jackson to intercept the men. Jackson was unsuccessful. The mob arrived in Philadelphia, and the soldiers proceeded to harangue Congress for their pay.
The president of the Continental Congress , John Dickinson , feared that the Pennsylvania state militia was unreliable, and refused its help.
Hamilton argued that Congress ought to adjourn to Princeton, New Jersey. Congress agreed, and relocated there. This resolution contained many features of the future U.
Constitution, including a strong federal government with the ability to collect taxes and raise an army. It also included the separation of powers into the legislative , executive , and judicial branches.
Hamilton resigned from Congress in He specialized in defending Tories and British subjects, as in Rutgers v.
Waddington , in which he defeated a claim for damages done to a brewery by the Englishmen who held it during the military occupation of New York.
He pleaded for the Mayor's Court to interpret state law consistent with the Treaty of Paris which had ended the Revolutionary War.
In , he founded the Bank of New York , one of the oldest still-existing [update] banks in America. Long dissatisfied with the weak Articles of Confederation, he played a major leadership role at the Annapolis Convention in He drafted its resolution for a constitutional convention, and in doing so brought one step closer to reality his longtime desire to have a more powerful, more financially independent federal government.
In , Hamilton served as assemblyman from New York County in the New York State Legislature and was chosen as a delegate for the Constitutional Convention by his father-in-law Philip Schuyler.
Governor George Clinton 's faction in the New York legislature had chosen New York's other two delegates, John Lansing Jr. Early in the Convention Hamilton made a speech proposing a President-for-Life; it had no effect upon the deliberations of the convention.
He proposed to have an elected president and elected senators who would serve for life, contingent upon "good behavior" and subject to removal for corruption or abuse; this idea contributed later to the hostile view of Hamilton as a monarchist sympathizer, held by James Madison.
This idea all but isolated Hamilton from his fellow delegates and others who were tempered in the ideas of revolution and liberty.
According to Madison's notes, Hamilton said in regards to the executive, "The English model was the only good one on this subject.
The hereditary interest of the king was so interwoven with that of the nation, and his personal emoluments so great, that he was placed above the danger of being corrupted from abroad Let one executive be appointed for life who dares execute his powers.
Hamilton argued, "And let me observe that an executive is less dangerous to the liberties of the people when in office during life than for seven years.
It may be said this constitutes as an elective monarchy But by making the executive subject to impeachment, the term 'monarchy' cannot apply This draft had most of the features of the actual Constitution.
In this draft, the Senate was to be elected in proportion to the population, being two-fifths the size of the House, and the President and Senators were to be elected through complex multistage elections, in which chosen electors would elect smaller bodies of electors; they would hold office for life, but were removable for misconduct.
The President would have an absolute veto. The Supreme Court was to have immediate jurisdiction over all lawsuits involving the United States, and state governors were to be appointed by the federal government.
At the end of the convention, Hamilton was still not content with the final Constitution, but signed it anyway as a vast improvement over the Articles of Confederation, and urged his fellow delegates to do so also.
He first used the popularity of the Constitution by the masses to compel George Clinton to sign, but was unsuccessful. The state convention in Poughkeepsie in June pitted Hamilton, Jay, James Duane , Robert Livingston , and Richard Morris against the Clintonian faction led by Melancton Smith , Lansing, Yates, and Gilbert Livingston.
Members of Hamilton's faction were against any conditional ratification, under the impression that New York would not be accepted into the Union, while Clinton's faction wanted to amend the Constitution, while maintaining the state's right to secede if their attempts failed.
During the state convention, New Hampshire and Virginia becoming the ninth and tenth states to ratify the Constitution, respectively, had ensured any adjournment would not happen and a compromise would have to be reached.
In , Hamilton served a second term in what proved to be the last session of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation.
Hamilton recruited John Jay and James Madison to write a series of essays defending the proposed Constitution, now known as The Federalist Papers , and made the largest contribution to that effort, writing 51 of the 85 essays published Madison wrote 29, and Jay wrote the other five.
Hamilton supervised the entire project, enlisted the participants, wrote the majority of the essays, and oversaw the publication.
During the project, each person was responsible for their areas of expertise. Jay covered foreign relations.
Madison covered the history of republics and confederacies, along with the anatomy of the new government. Hamilton covered the branches of government most pertinent to him: the executive and judicial branches, with some aspects of the Senate, as well as covering military matters and taxation.
Hamilton wrote the first paper signed as Publius , and all of the subsequent papers were signed under the name. Hamilton and Madison worked to describe the anarchic state of the confederation in numbers 15—22 , and have been described as not being entirely different in thought during this time period --in contrast to their stark opposition later in life.
In , King George III had ruled in favor of New York in a dispute between New York and New Hampshire over the region that later became the state of Vermont.
New York then refused to recognize claims to property derived from grants by New Hampshire governor Benning Wentworth during the preceding 15 years when the territory had been governed as a de facto part of New Hampshire.
Consequently, the people of the disputed territory, called the New Hampshire Grants , resisted the enforcement of New York's laws within the grants.
Ethan Allen 's militia called the Green Mountain Boys , noted for successes in the war against the British in , was originally formed for the purpose of resisting the colonial government of New York.
In , the statesmen of the grants declared it a separate state to be called Vermont , and by early , had erected a state government.
During —, Vermont was repeatedly denied representation in the Continental Congress, largely because New York insisted that Vermont was legally a part of New York.
Vermont took the position that because its petitions for admission to the Union were denied, it was not a part of the United States, not subject to Congress, and at liberty to negotiate separately with the British.
The latter Haldimand negotiations led to some exchanges of prisoners of war. The peace treaty of that ended the war included Vermont within the boundaries of the United States.
On March 2, , Governor George Clinton of New York asked Congress to declare war for the purpose of overthrowing the government of Vermont, but Congress made no decision.
By , the government of New York had almost entirely given up plans to subjugate Vermont, but still claimed jurisdiction.
Consideration of the bill was deferred to a later date. In through , Hamilton exchanged letters with Nathaniel Chipman , a lawyer representing Vermont.
In , the new Constitution of the United States went into effect, with its plan to replace the unicameral Continental Congress with a new Congress consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
Hamilton wrote:. One of the first subjects of deliberation with the new Congress will be the independence of Kentucky [at that time still a part of Virginia], for which the southern states will be anxious.
The northern will be glad to find a counterpoise in Vermont. In , the New York legislature decided to give up New York's claim to Vermont if Congress decided to admit Vermont to the Union and if negotiations between New York and Vermont on the boundary between the two states were successfully concluded.
In , negotiators discussed not only the boundary, but also financial compensation of New York land-grantees whose grants Vermont refused to recognize because they conflicted with earlier grants from New Hampshire.
Compensation in the amount of 30, Spanish dollars was agreed to, and Vermont was admitted to the Union in President George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first United States secretary of the treasury on September 11, He left office on the last day of January Much of the structure of the government of the United States was worked out in those five years, beginning with the structure and function of the cabinet itself.
Biographer Forrest McDonald argues that Hamilton saw his office, like that of the British first lord of the treasury , as the equivalent of a prime minister.
Hamilton oversaw his colleagues under the elective reign of George Washington. Washington requested Hamilton's advice and assistance on matters outside the purview of the Treasury Department.
In , while secretary, Hamilton was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among these are the First Report on the Public Credit , Operations of the Act Laying Duties on Imports , Report on a National Bank , On the Establishment of a Mint, Report on Manufactures , and the Report on a Plan for the Further Support of Public Credit.
Before the adjournment of the House in September , they requested Hamilton to make a report on suggestions to improve the public credit by January Although they agreed on additional taxes such as distilleries and duties on imported liquors and land taxes, Madison feared that the securities from the government debt would fall into foreign hands.
In the report, Hamilton felt that the securities should be paid at full value to their legitimate owners, including those who took the financial risk of buying government bonds that most experts thought would never be redeemed.
He argued that liberty and property security were inseparable and that the government should honor the contracts, as they formed the basis of public and private morality.
To Hamilton, the proper handling of the government debt would also allow America to borrow at affordable interest rates and would also be a stimulant to the economy.
Hamilton divided the debt into national and state, and further divided the national debt into foreign and domestic debt. While there was agreement on how to handle the foreign debt especially with France , there was not with regards to the national debt held by domestic creditors.
During the Revolutionary War, affluent citizens had invested in bonds, and war veterans had been paid with promissory notes and IOUs that plummeted in price during the Confederation.
In response, the war veterans sold the securities to speculators for as little as fifteen to twenty cents on the dollar.
Hamilton felt the money from the bonds should not go to the soldiers who had shown little faith in the country's future, but the speculators that had bought the bonds from the soldiers.
The process of attempting to track down the original bondholders along with the government showing discrimination among the classes of holders if the war veterans were to be compensated also weighed in as factors for Hamilton.
As for the state debts, Hamilton suggested to consolidate it with the national debt and label it as federal debt, for the sake of efficiency on a national scale.
The last portion of the report dealt with eliminating the debt by utilizing a sinking fund that would retire five percent of the debt annually until it was paid off.
Due to the bonds being traded well below their face value, the purchases would benefit the government as the securities rose in price.
Some of the negative views expressed in the House were that the notion of programs that resembled British practice were wicked, and that the balance of power would be shifted away from the representatives to the executive branch.
William Maclay suspected that several congressmen were involved in government securities, seeing Congress in an unholy league with New York speculators.
The involvement of those in Hamilton's circle such as Schuyler, William Duer , James Duane , Gouverneur Morris, and Rufus King as speculators was not favorable to those against the report, either, though Hamilton personally did not own or deal a share in the debt.
Although he was not against current holders of government debt to profit, he wanted the windfall to go to the original holders.
Madison did not feel that the original holders had lost faith in the government, but sold their securities out of desperation.
The fight for the national government to assume state debt was a longer issue, and lasted over four months. During the period, the resources that Hamilton was to apply to the payment of state debts was requested by Alexander White , and was rejected due to Hamilton's not being able to prepare information by March 3, and was even postponed by his own supporters in spite of configuring a report the next day which consisted of a series of additional duties to meet the interest on the state debts.
During this period, Hamilton bypassed the rising issue of slavery in Congress, after Quakers petitioned for its abolition, returning to the issue the following year.
Another issue in which Hamilton played a role was the temporary location of the capital from New York City. Tench Coxe was sent to speak to Maclay to bargain about the capital being temporarily located to Philadelphia, as a single vote in the Senate was needed and five in the House for the bill to pass.
Hamilton's Report on a National Bank was a projection from the first Report on the Public Credit. Although Hamilton had been forming ideas of a national bank as early as ,  : he had gathered ideas in various ways over the past eleven years.
These included theories from Adam Smith,  extensive studies on the Bank of England , the blunders of the Bank of North America and his experience in establishing the Bank of New York.
Since the government did not have the money, it would borrow the money from the bank itself, and repay the loan in ten even annual installments.
The bill passed through the Senate practically without a problem, but objections to the proposal increased by the time it reached the House of Representatives.
It was generally held by critics that Hamilton was serving the interests of the Northeast by means of the bank,  and those of the agrarian lifestyle would not benefit from it.
The potential of the capital not being moved to the Potomac if the bank was to have a firm establishment in Philadelphia was a more significant reason, and actions that Pennsylvania members of Congress took to keep the capital there made both men anxious.
Madison warned the Pennsylvania congress members that he would attack the bill as unconstitutional in the House, and followed up on his threat.
Washington hesitated to sign the bill, as he received suggestions from Attorney General Edmund Randolph and Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson dismissed the 'necessary and proper' clause as reasoning for the creation of a national bank, stating that the enumerated powers "can all be carried into execution without a bank.
In , Hamilton submitted the Report on the Establishment of a Mint to the House of Representatives. Many of Hamilton's ideas for this report were from European economists, resolutions from Continental Congress meetings from and , and from people such as Robert Morris, Gouverneur Morris and Thomas Jefferson.
Because the most circulated coins in the United States at the time were Spanish currency , Hamilton proposed that minting a United States dollar weighing almost as much as the Spanish peso would be the simplest way to introduce a national currency.
Hamilton proposed that the U. By , Hamilton's principles were adopted by Congress, resulting in the Coinage Act of , and the creation of the United States Mint.
There was to be a ten-dollar Gold Eagle coin, a silver dollar, and fractional money ranging from one-half to fifty cents.
Smuggling off American coasts was an issue before the Revolutionary War, and after the Revolution it was more problematic.
Along with smuggling, lack of shipping control, pirating, and a revenue unbalance were also major problems.
Concerning some of the details of the "System of Cutters",  [note 1] Hamilton wanted the first ten cutters in different areas in the United States, from New England to Georgia.
The fabric of the sails was to be domestically manufactured;  and provisions were made for the employees' food supply and etiquette when boarding ships.
One of the principal sources of revenue Hamilton prevailed upon Congress to approve was an excise tax on whiskey. In his first Tariff Bill in January , Hamilton proposed to raise the three million dollars needed to pay for government operating expenses and interest on domestic and foreign debts by means of an increase on duties on imported wines, distilled spirits, tea, coffee, and domestic spirits.
It failed, with Congress complying with most recommendations excluding the excise tax on whiskey Madison's tariff of the same year was a modification of Hamilton's that involved only imported duties and was passed in September.
In response of diversifying revenues, as three-fourths of revenue gathered was from commerce with Great Britain, Hamilton attempted once again during his Report on Public Credit when presenting it in to implement an excise tax on both imported and domestic spirits.
Opposition initially came from Pennsylvania's House of Representatives protesting the tax. William Maclay had noted that not even the Pennsylvanian legislators had been able to enforce excise taxes in the western regions of the state.
Hamilton had attempted to appease the opposition with lowered tax rates, but it did not suffice. Strong opposition to the whiskey tax by cottage producers in remote, rural regions erupted into the Whiskey Rebellion in ; in Western Pennsylvania and western Virginia , whiskey was the basic export product and was fundamental to the local economy.
In response to the rebellion, believing compliance with the laws was vital to the establishment of federal authority, Hamilton accompanied to the rebellion's site President Washington, General Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee , and more federal troops than were ever assembled in one place during the Revolution.
This overwhelming display of force intimidated the leaders of the insurrection, ending the rebellion virtually without bloodshed. Hamilton's next report was his Report on Manufactures.
Although he was requested by Congress on January 15, , for a report for manufacturing that would expand the United States' independence, the report was not submitted until December 5, Hamilton argued that developing an industrial economy is impossible without protective tariffs.
Phillip Magness argues that "Hamilton's political career might legitimately be characterized as a sustained drift into nationalistic xenophobia.
In , Hamilton, along with Coxe and several entrepreneurs from New York and Philadelphia formed the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures , a private industrial corporation.
In May , the directors decided to scope out The Passaic Falls. On July 4, , the society directors met Philip Schuyler at Abraham Godwin 's hotel on the Passaic River , where they would lead a tour prospecting the area for the national manufactory.
It was originally suggested that they dig mile long trenches and build the factories away from the falls, but Hamilton argued that it would be too costly and laborious.
The location at Great Falls of the Passaic River in New Jersey was selected due to access to raw materials, it being densely inhabited, and having access to water power from the falls of the Passaic.
Hamilton's vision was challenged by Virginia agrarians Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, who formed a rival party, the Jeffersonian Republican party.
They favored strong state governments based in rural America and protected by state militias as opposed to a strong national government supported by a national army and navy.
They denounced Hamilton as insufficiently devoted to republicanism, too friendly toward corrupt Britain and toward monarchy in general, and too oriented toward cities, business and banking.
The American two-party system began to emerge as political parties coalesced around competing interests. A congressional caucus, led by Madison, Jefferson and William Branch Giles , began as an opposition group to Hamilton's financial programs.
Hamilton and his allies began to call themselves Federalists. The opposition group, now called the Democratic-Republican Party by political scientists, at the time called itself Republicans.
Hamilton assembled a nationwide coalition to garner support for the Administration, including the expansive financial programs Hamilton had made administration policy and especially the president's policy of neutrality in the European war between Britain and France.
The Jeffersonian Republicans opposed banks and cities, and favored France. They built their own national coalition to oppose the Federalists.
Both sides gained the support of local political factions, and each side developed its own partisan newspapers. Noah Webster , John Fenno , and William Cobbett were energetic editors for the Federalists; Benjamin Franklin Bache and Philip Freneau were fiery Republican editors.
All of their newspapers were characterized by intense personal attacks, major exaggerations, and invented claims.
In , Hamilton established a daily newspaper that is still published, the New York Evening Post now the New York Post , and brought in William Coleman as its editor.
The quarrel between Hamilton and Jefferson is the best known and historically the most important in American political history.
Hamilton's and Jefferson's incompatibility was heightened by the unavowed wish of each to be Washington's principal and most trusted advisor.
An additional partisan irritant to Hamilton was the United States Senate election in New York , which resulted in the election of Democratic-Republican candidate Aaron Burr , previously the New York state attorney general , over Senator Philip Schuyler, the Federalist incumbent and Hamilton's father-in-law.
Hamilton blamed Burr personally for this outcome, and negative characterizations of Burr appear in his correspondence thereafter.
The two men did work together from time to time thereafter on various projects, including Hamilton's army of and the Manhattan Water Company.
When France and Britain went to war in early , all four members of the Cabinet were consulted on what to do. Hamilton and the Federalists wished for more trade with Britain, the largest trading partner of the newly formed United States.
The Republicans saw monarchist Britain as the main threat to republicanism and proposed instead to start a trade war. To avoid war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to negotiate with the British; Hamilton largely wrote Jay's instructions.
The result was Jay's Treaty. It was denounced by the Republicans, but Hamilton mobilized support throughout the land. The Treaty resolved issues remaining from the Revolution, averted war, and made possible ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain.
Several European states had formed a League of Armed Neutrality against incursions on their neutral rights; the Cabinet was also consulted on whether the United States should join the alliance, and decided not to.
It kept that decision secret, but Hamilton revealed it in private to George Hammond, the British minister to the United States, without telling Jay or anyone else.
His act remained unknown until Hammond's dispatches were read in the s. This "amazing revelation" may have had limited effect on the negotiations; Jay did threaten to join the League at one point, but the British had other reasons not to view the League as a serious threat.
Hamilton tendered his resignation from office on December 1, , giving Washington two months' notice,  in the wake of his wife Eliza 's miscarriage  while he was absent during his armed repression of the Whiskey Rebellion.
Hamilton grew dissatisfied with what he viewed as a lack of a comprehensive plan to fix the public debt. He wished to have new taxes passed with older ones made permanent and stated that any surplus from the excise tax on liquor would be pledged to lower public debt.
His proposals were included into a bill by Congress within slightly over a month after his departure as treasury secretary.
Hamilton's resignation as Secretary of the Treasury in did not remove him from public life. With the resumption of his law practice, he remained close to Washington as an advisor and friend.
Hamilton influenced Washington in the composition of his farewell address by writing drafts for Washington to compare with the latter's draft, although when Washington contemplated retirement in , he had consulted James Madison for a draft that was used in a similar manner to Hamilton's.
In the election of , under the Constitution as it stood then, each of the presidential electors had two votes, which they were to cast for different men.
The one who received most votes would become president, the second-most, vice president. This system was not designed with the operation of parties in mind, as they had been thought disreputable and factious.
The Federalists planned to deal with this by having all their Electors vote for John Adams, then vice president, and all but a few for Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina.
Adams resented Hamilton's influence with Washington and considered him overambitious and scandalous in his private life; Hamilton compared Adams unfavorably with Washington and thought him too emotionally unstable to be president.
If all this worked, Pinckney would have more votes than Adams, Pinckney would become president, and Adams would remain vice president, but it did not work.
The Federalists found out about it even the French minister to the United States knew , and northern Federalists voted for Adams but not for Pinckney, in sufficient numbers that Pinckney came in third and Jefferson became vice president.
In the summer of , Hamilton became the first major American politician publicly involved in a sex scandal. According to Hamilton's recount, Maria approached him at his house in Philadelphia, claiming that her husband, James Reynolds, had abandoned her and she wished to return to her relatives in New York but lacked the means.
The two began an intermittent illicit affair that lasted approximately until June Over the course of that year, while the affair took place, James Reynolds was well aware of his wife's unfaithfulness.
He continually supported their relationship to regularly gain blackmail money from Hamilton. The common practice in the day was for the wronged husband to seek retribution in a pistol duel , but Reynolds, realizing how much Hamilton had to lose if his activity came into public view, insisted on monetary compensation instead.
In November , James Reynolds and his associate Jacob Clingman were arrested for counterfeiting and speculating in Revolutionary War veterans' unpaid back wages.
Clingman was released on bail and relayed information to James Monroe that Reynolds had evidence that would incriminate Hamilton. Monroe consulted with congressmen Muhlenberg and Venable on what actions to take and the congressmen confronted Hamilton on December 15, The trio were to keep the documents privately with the utmost confidence.
In the summer of , however, when "notoriously scurrilous journalist" James T. Callender published A History of the United States for the Year , it contained accusations of James Reynolds being an agent of Hamilton, using documents from the confrontation of December 15, On July 5, , Hamilton wrote to Monroe, Muhlenberg and Venable asking them to confirm that there was nothing that would damage the perception of his integrity while Secretary of Treasury.
All complied with Hamilton's request but Monroe. Hamilton then published a page booklet, later usually referred to as the Reynolds Pamphlet , and discussed the affair in exquisite detail.
Hamilton's wife Elizabeth eventually forgave him, but not Monroe. During the military build-up of the Quasi-War of —, and with the strong endorsement of Washington who had been called out of retirement to lead the Army if a French invasion materialized , Adams reluctantly appointed Hamilton a major general of the army.
At Washington's insistence, Hamilton was made the senior major general, prompting Henry Knox to decline appointment to serve as Hamilton's junior Knox had been a major general in the Continental Army and thought it would be degrading to serve beneath him.
Hamilton served as inspector general of the United States Army from July 18, , to June 15, Because Washington was unwilling to leave Mount Vernon unless it were to command an army in the field, Hamilton was the de facto head of the army, to Adams's considerable displeasure.
If full-scale war broke out with France, Hamilton argued that the army should conquer the North American colonies of France's ally, Spain, bordering the United States.
To fund this army, Hamilton wrote regularly to Oliver Wolcott Jr. He directed them to pass a direct tax to fund the war. Smith resigned in July , as Hamilton scolded him for slowness, and told Wolcott to tax houses instead of land.
Hamilton aided in all areas of the army's development, and after Washington's death he was by default the senior officer of the United States Army from December 14, , to June 15, The army was to guard against invasion from France.
Adams, however, derailed all plans for war by opening negotiations with France that led to peace. In the election, Hamilton worked to defeat not only the rival Democratic-Republican candidates, but also his party's own nominee, John Adams.
Aaron Burr had won New York for Jefferson in May; now Hamilton proposed a rerun of the election under different rules—with carefully drawn districts and each choosing an elector—such that the Federalists would split the electoral vote of New York.
John Adams was running this time with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina the elder brother of candidate Thomas Pinckney from the election.
Hamilton now toured New England , again urging northern electors to hold firm for Pinckney in the renewed hope of making Pinckney president; and he again intrigued in South Carolina.
In accordance with the second of the aforementioned plans, and a recent personal rift with Adams,  : Hamilton wrote a pamphlet called Letter from Alexander Hamilton, Concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq.
President of the United States that was highly critical of him, though it closed with a tepid endorsement. This hurt Adams's reelection campaign and split the Federalist Party, virtually assuring the victory of the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson, in the election of ; it destroyed Hamilton's position among the Federalists.
Jefferson had beaten Adams, but both he and Aaron Burr, had received 73 votes in the Electoral College Adams finished in third place, Pinckney in fourth, and Jay received one vote.
With Jefferson and Burr tied, the United States House of Representatives had to choose between the two men. Before the 36th ballot, Hamilton threw his weight behind Jefferson, supporting the arrangement reached by James A.
Bayard of Delaware, in which five Federalist Representatives from Maryland and Vermont abstained from voting, allowing those states' delegations to go for Jefferson, ending the impasse and electing Jefferson president rather than Burr.
Even though Hamilton did not like Jefferson and disagreed with him on many issues, he viewed Jefferson as the lesser of two evils.
Hamilton spoke of Jefferson as being "by far not so a dangerous man", and that Burr was a "mischievous enemy" to the principle measure of the past administration.
Hamilton wrote an exceeding number of letters to friends in Congress to convince the members to see otherwise. When it became clear that Jefferson had developed his own concerns about Burr and would not support his return to the vice presidency,  Burr sought the New York governorship in with Federalist support, against the Jeffersonian Morgan Lewis , but was defeated by forces including Hamilton.
Soon after the gubernatorial election in New York—in which Morgan Lewis , greatly assisted by Hamilton, defeated Aaron Burr —the Albany Register published Charles D.
Cooper 's letters, citing Hamilton's opposition to Burr and alleging that Hamilton had expressed "a still more despicable opinion" of the Vice President at an upstate New York dinner party.
Burr, sensing an attack on his honor, and recovering from his defeat, demanded an apology in letter form. Hamilton wrote a letter in response and ultimately refused because he could not recall the instance of insulting Burr.
Hamilton would also have been accused of recanting Cooper's letter out of cowardice. The concept of honor was fundamental to Hamilton's vision of himself and of the nation.
Before the duel, Hamilton wrote a defense of his decision to duel while at the same time intending to "throw away" his shot.
He attempted to reconcile his moral and religious reasons and the codes of honor and politics. He intended to accept the duel in order to satisfy his morals, and throw away his fire to satisfy his political codes.
The duel began at dawn on July 11, , along the west bank of the Hudson River on a rocky ledge in Weehawken, New Jersey.
Van Ness and Burr, raised his pistol "as if to try the light" and had to wear his glasses to prevent his vision from being obscured.
Vice President Burr shot Hamilton, delivering what proved to be a fatal wound. Hamilton's shot broke a tree branch directly above Burr's head.
Soon after, they measured and triangulated the shooting, but could not determine from which angle Hamilton had fired.
Burr's shot hit Hamilton in the lower abdomen above his right hip. The bullet ricocheted off Hamilton's second or third false rib , fracturing it and causing considerable damage to his internal organs, particularly his liver and diaphragm , before becoming lodged in his first or second lumbar vertebra.
The paralyzed Hamilton was immediately attended by the same surgeon who tended Phillip Hamilton, and ferried to the Greenwich Village boarding house of his friend William Bayard Jr.
After final visits from his family and friends and considerable suffering for at least 31 hours, Hamilton died at two o'clock the following afternoon, July 12, ,   at Bayard's home just below the present Gansevoort Street.
While Hamilton was stationed in Morristown, New Jersey , in the winter of December — March , he met Elizabeth Schuyler , a daughter of General Philip Schuyler and Catherine Van Rensselaer.
To this list he added Russia and France on the title page of Butterflies and moths. By the s he was claiming membership as well in scientific societies in Austria, Italy, Denmark, Greece, Germany, Switzerland, Bohemia, and Württemberg, and knighthoods and other honours from almost all the royal heads of European and even middle-eastern states in acknowledgement of his work and collections of specimens sent to museums in those states.
In any case, he seemingly had exhausted his naturalist interests by the s and turned his attention to medical and social matters. In Memorial of fifty years in the life of Alexander Milton Ross , — , which Ross published on the occasion of his 50th birthday for his children, he observed that the period of his life from to was devoted to his crusade for moral and physical reform.
He formed the Canadian Society for the Diffusion of Physiological Knowledge in and published a tract entitled The evils arising from unphysiological habits in youth presumably masturbation , for which he received support and encouragement from clergymen and others, many of whom requested copies for distribution.
Ross apparently had not become a practising physician until , when he was licensed by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario.
Drawn to Montreal by an outbreak of smallpox in the early s, Ross joined the campaign against compulsory vaccination.
He entered the fray with characteristic zeal, by corresponding with and enlisting the support of like-minded persons, many doctors among them, in Europe and North America.
Beginning in he published anti-vaccination tracts and contributed articles to Montreal newspapers. The league successfully challenged in the courts the imposition of compulsory vaccination.
Ross and his associates first of all did not believe that vaccination prevented smallpox. In tracts and articles on vaccination, Ross indicted in emotional rhetoric both the medical profession and the province; he must have been anathema to many of his colleagues for accusing them of having a vested interest in their support of vaccination.
In some of his medical goals, however, he was ahead of his time. For example, he emphasized prevention instead of cure by crusading for an efficient municipal sanitation system and a supply of pure water, and for public education concerning personal and domestic cleanliness and healthful diet as proper means to prevent smallpox and other diseases.
Ross remained a proponent of reform, reviewing and taking up again his struggle for human freedom in his Memoirs. He also prohibited the consumption of drugs, all of which he considered unnatural.
He derived such principles from R. In religion, as in matters of health, Ross was unconventional. If Ross ever had an affiliation with a religious group, it was the Quakers.
His books record his admiration of Quakers in his abolition days, and when he wrote to British prime minister William Ewart Gladstone upon his retirement in , he wrote as a Quaker.
Probably the most suitable designation for Ross is that of a 19th-century crusader for individual freedom. That designation was given by more than one admirer, especially with respect to his efforts on behalf of blacks.
These tributes constitute an important part of his books and of all contemporary biographical accounts of him. But there is something unsettling about his apparent need to disseminate such tributes so widely.
It is not at all certain that they were obtained through personal knowledge of Ross by those famous persons.
Some seem to have been generated by the publication of his Recollections.This site should not be used to make decisions about employment, tenant screening, or any purpose covered by the FCRA. Statistics for all Alexander Milton results:. Resides in Galway, NY.